During the last 6 years it has been determined an exponential increase of interest in terms of embryonic and adult stem cells.
This was not confined only to laboratory research, many human patients (but also veterinary) were provided with treatments based on stem cells.
The possibilities of using adult mesenchymal stem cells in medicine are unlimited and make the object of regenerative medicine and surgery. Thus, there can be regenerated structures from: 1. Skin level 2. Blood vessels level 3. Heart 4. Respiratory tract – trachea, larynx, lung tissue 6. Urinary tract – bladder, urethra 7. Pancreas 8. Liver 9. Gastrointestinal tract 10. Orthopedics 11. Biomaterials 12. Nerves 13. Bones
→ Stem cells are responsible for organizing and developing all the multicellular organisms. These cells’ ability of transforming themselves in a controlled manner in other types of cells makes them very valuable. There are 2 types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.
The most researched adult stem cells studied so far are the ones coming from the bone marrow but the failure to obtain a large number of these cells has made the research to look to another type of adult stem cell.
It is long time known that the adipose tissue contains adipocytes and non-adipogenic cells (endothelialcells, fibroblasts, pericytes and others) known as stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Recent studies have shown that among cells of this component there are also mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipocytes CSDA). These cells have the same properties as stem cells coming from the bone marrow thus making the adipose tissue the most importance source of adult mesenchymal stem cells (CSDA1. These are multipotent cells. Theycan differentiate intovarious cell types. They also have an important trophic role as immunosuppressive cells and, within the postlesionalresponse; they are the first answer line of the human body to an aggression factor.
With aging, the mesenchymal stem cells percent in the marrow decreases from 1:10.000 at birth to 1:2.000.000 at 80 years old. But, because the excess of fat in humans is increasing, CSAD becomes a new hope, with a number of cells 500 times higher in the same quantity compared to bone marrow.
These mesenchymal cells have different differentiationways. CSDA can differentiate into osteoblasts, myocytes, chondrocytes and other cells. Their regeneration potential comes not only from differentiation but mostly from the trophic capacity to generate bio-reactive factors.
Ideally, medicine would want a cicatrisation therapy with a minimal inflammatory response and maximum regenerative; research has started to show that CSDA can facilitate this process. There is performed extensive research worldwide in which some researchers obtained example results in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the small intestine and colon and also in improving the myocardium function after myocardic infarction. These cells proved to be already effective in regenerative plastic-aesthetic surgery: transplants for different parts of the body, grafts improvement, reinjectionin the facewith anti-aging effect, improvement of recent or old scars. They can be used in combination with autologous fat transfer in reconstructive mammoplasties or in the aesthetic augmentation ones in order to optimize fat graft survival and the healing time of the surgical wound. There were also obtained promising result in improvement ofsclerodermamanifestations in hands (study conducted by Prof. Greg Magallan).
SG 47 years, AdipoLASER rejuvenation + PRP + Autologous stem cells derived from adipocytes.
8 postoperative months
→ The adipose tissue is an accessible and abundant source of adult stem cells that can be isolated through a standardized physicochemicalprocess. These CSDA are multipotent cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes or osteoblasts with a high potential of application in the repair andregeneration ofdamagedtissue. Worldwide, there are studies in which CSDA are injected in order to improve heart, kidney or liver disease. The ability of these cells to migrate into damaged areas can revolutionize the treatment of myocardic infarction, strokes, renal failure or cirrhosis. In this respect, Xiaowen Bai et al2 have shown, on experimentsconductedon mice, that these stem cells represent a future therapy as far as functional recovery after myocardic infarction is concerned. They have shown that their injection in the lesion has taken to the improvement of the vascularization of the suffering tissue and myocardium function. The differentiation and support capacity of the endogenous tissues represent a benefit in repairing the damaged tissues. A study performed by G.Rigotti et al3 has shown that the autologous fat transfer containing autologous stem cells from the adipose tissue represent a successful therapeutically approach in case of post radiotherapy lesions. In this study they have shown how these stem cells trigger a chain reaction starting with identifying the lesion, issuance of angiogenic factors favoring neoangiogenesis thus leading to a better oxygenation of the respective region. In another study, Cohen SR and Mailey B4. have shown the potential of these regenerative stem cells for facial rejuvenation and their role in lipofilling procedures at face level. Another study conducted by Mohammed A.S. et al5 has shown the CSAD role in retractile, post-combustionscars and in treatment of face wrinkles. Also, it’s already a fact the CSDA role in breast reconstruction or augmentation with adipose tissue, this increasing the survival rate of the latter. An ongoing preliminary study, performed by Proestetica Medical Center in collaboration with “Nicolae Simionescu” Institute of Biology and Cellular Pathology of in vitro research regarding the behavior of CSDA stimulated by LASER ( CO2 10600nm wavelength) injected alone or in adipose suspension.
→ Using the autologous stem cells derived from adipose tissue presents an important progress as regards the repair and tissue regeneration. The performed studies confirm us that these cells, through their capacity of regenerating the tissue have an important role in facial rejuvenation, improving the scars and in other fields or regenerative surgery and medicine, thanks to their capacity of differentiation in other types of cells and of diminishing the inflammatory response. Also, there is emphasized the fact that obtaining the CSDA is accessible, easy to perform, making of these and important source of stem cells.
1. Coleman SR (1997): Facial recontouring with lipostructure. ClinPlast Surg, 24: 347-367.
2. Xiaowen Bai, Yasheng Yan, Yao-Hua Song, Max Seidensticker, Brian Rabinovich,
Roxana Metzele1, James A. Bankson, Daynene Vykoukal1, and Eckhard Alt. Both cultured and freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived stem cells enhance cardiac function after acute myocardic infarction. European Heart Journal doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehp568
3. G.Rigotti, A.Marchi, M.Galie, G.Garoni, D.Benati, M.Krampera, A.Pasini, A.Sbarbati: Therapeutic Healing of Radiolesions by Autologous Lipoaspirate Transplant: a Process Mediated by Adipose-derived Adult Stem Cells.Partly reproduced from :Rigotti et al. (2007) Clinical treatment of radiotherapy tissue damage by lipoaspirate transplant:a healing procedd mediated by adipose-derived adult stem cells. Plast Reconstr surg Apr 15;119(5):1409-1422
4. Cohen SR, Mailey B. Adipocyte-derived stem and regenerative cells in facial rejuvenation. Clin Plast Surg. 2012 Oct;39(4):453-64.doi:10.1016/j.cps.2012.07.014.
5. Mohammed Adel Salahat, Loureance Al Hadid: Autologous Adipose Stem Cells Use for Skin Regeneration and Treatment in Humans. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, ISSN 2224-3208, Vol.3, No.1, 2013
6. Ali Ghanem – revista Body Language